The Azure Cost Monitor and many other cloud services I’m working on, needed a timeline service to present aggregated events and actions similar to an audit trail. When I was thinking about this, it came to my mind that the requirements I had were very similar to a Twitter feed but with less features.
Let’s recap what is needed to build a timeline service in general:
- The Timeline
The Timeline is associated with a subject and contains tons of events happened and triggered by other subjects the timeline owner follows.
- The Event
The Event is the incident that happens in the real world and is stored in different timelines. This means every follower of a subject will get the event in his own timeline. So a single event can be stored in many different timelines.
- The Subject
The Subject is someone or something which triggers an event. Normally it is a natural person with an own timeline but it could also be a piece of hard/software.
- The Target(s)
The Targets are subjects with a timeline who are following other subjects. This means every subject becomes a follower or target as soon as it is following an other subject. Posting an event then means sending the message to the timeline of every subject following the sender.
The following picture should give a good overview about the entities in the timeline service:
Starting with this definitions in mind it’s possible to identify components needed for building a timeline service:
- Storage for the timeline
The storage for the timeline needs to be able to offer a very fast read performance and an OK write performance. The performance should especially not be dependent from the amount of data in the system. I chose Azure Table Store for this because I can store the information in different partitions and get a clear read performance SLA for every partition. In addition to this it’s totally cheap and payable – also for startups.
- Access broker to the storage
Normally NoSQL storage which can be used for timeline access needs a little helper to manage access. In general a RESTful web-service acts as an access broker and hands out pre-signed links to the timeline content. This ensures that no timeline data needs to go through the timeline service at all. Only the pre-authorised access links will be generated for the system. This also means that at the end the client SDK needs to handle the raw data for the timeline. This makes it a bit more complicated but it lets the performance stay in a good range. An other important operation needs to be implemented in the Access broker as well: Posting events to the subjects followers is a slow and complex operation the system needs to implement with a direct server call normally executed asynchronous with the help of a worker job.
- Metadata storage for subject and targets
Last but not least the combination of subject & targets needs to be stored somewhere in the backend. Azure Table Store can be used for this as well. All the operations to create a follow-ship can be implemented in the timeline service as well but not the rights & permission checks to post or create relations because the timeline service should be used machine-2-machine with API tokens.
The following graphic shows the technical architecture of a good scalable timeline service based on Azure services:
The next part of this tutorial will focus on the correct and scalable table structure based on Microsoft Azure Table Storage.